Kunshan Qi Lin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd.
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Common food preservatives are: benzoic acid, is a food preservatives allowed in all countries in the world, it is easy to excreted with the excrement in the body of animals, does not accumulate, low toxicity and low prices, currently occupy the majority of domestic preservative market; Butyl hydroxy anisole (BHA) is one of the most widely used antioxidants in the world and has a strong antimicrobial effect. It is mainly used for edible oils and fats with a maximum dosage of 0.2 g / kg. The disadvantage is that the cost is high. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) is currently one of the largest antioxidants in China with low price, which is 1/5 to 1/8 of that of BHA, but its oxidation resistance is not as strong as that of BHA. Its use range is the same as that of BHA. The disadvantage is that High toxicity.
Propyl gallate (PG), antioxidant than BHA, BHT strong, mainly for fried foods, instant noodles and cans, the maximum amount of 0.1g / kg, the disadvantage is the color reaction with metal ions; isoascorbic acid, with In general food antioxidant, anti-corrosion, and non-toxic;
Tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), which is very effective for oils and fats, unsaturated crude vegetable oils, is stable to high temperatures and less volatile than BHA and BHT, making it ideal for processed and consumed foods that need to be heated.
In order to adapt to people's advocating of natural and healthy thoughts, developing and applying safe and effective food preservatives has become an important research field of food preservatives in the world today. According to the data confirmed that in people's long-term consumption of food, the natural preservative ingredients are far less toxic than synthetic preservatives. Therefore, in recent years, the study of seeking natural preservatives from nature has drawn great attention from scientists all over the world. A large number of natural preservative products developed in various countries are generally welcomed by people.
Natural Vitamin E
Natural VE is present in a large amount in plant oils and is non-toxic, and is usually present in a relatively stable state. In the oil refining process, can be recycled a large number of refined VE mixture. The composition is better oxidation resistance, safe use, has been widely used in food preservation. Limited to fat and oil-containing foods, it is the only natural antioxidant that is currently produced in large quantities in China. Higher prices, the less common occasions, mainly for health foods, baby foods and other high-value foods.
Black class category
They are amino compounds and carbonyl compounds heated products, its antioxidant capacity equivalent to BHA and BHT, and has antibacterial effect. Strong heat resistance, can give the food a good flavor.
Red pepper extract
Red pepper contains a lot of antioxidants, is a mixture of VE and vanillin. If you can remove the spicy flavor, it is an excellent antioxidant.
As early as the 1930s, people began to study the antioxidant effect of spices. By the 1950s, researchers analyzed 32 spices and found that among them, the best antioxidant was rosemary and sage. These products contain flavonoids, terpenoids, organic acids and other antioxidant ingredients, can cut off the grease auto-oxidation chain, chelate metal ions, and play a synergistic effect with organic acids. France extracted from rosemary dry leaf powder two kinds of crystalline antioxidants --- carnosol and rosemary phenol, which are more than 4 times more antioxidant than the synthetic oxidants BHT and BHA.
Generally extracted from fruits and vegetables, the enzyme decomposition of antibacterial effect in acidic environment. At present, foreign pectin decomposition products as the main ingredient, mixed with some other natural preservatives, has been widely used in vegetables, salted fish, beef and other food preservation.
From the chemical structure of carbohydrates can be divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc., but are low molecular weight carbohydrates. Among them, pentasaccharide and hexose monosaccharide promote oxidation, while disaccharide has a slight antioxidant effect. Fructose and sugar alcohol have strong antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants widely used in food are sorbitol and maltitol. Xylitol is also an antioxidant that has synergistic effects with VE.
Brown-red powder, with licorice smell. Is a good natural antioxidant and antifungal agent, the antioxidant capacity is superior to the maximum amount of BHT.
Phytic acid (PA)
Light yellow liquid or brown slurry liquid, from rice bran, corn and waste food processing. Phytic acid and metal chelation, to prevent the absorption of toxic metals in the digestive tract.
The extract has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, inhibit the virus, enhance the role of immune antibodies. The propolis extract directly into the milk, coffee, health oral solution, as well as beverage dairy products, liquid food has a good preservation effect.
In addition to those described above, there are also: sesamol, mostly used without sequestration, with sesame oil as an antioxidant; rice bran, from rice bran oil; quercetin, which is present in the oak bark; Petals, esters of unsaturated fatty acids have a strong antioxidant; rutin, present in the buckwheat, Sophorae flower buds, leaves and tomatoes stems and leaves; germ oil extract, animal and vegetable oils and fats are effective, suitable for high temperature processing Food use; brain phospholipids, taken from fresh sheep brain and human embryonic brain.
Nisin It is a small peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis, consisting of 34 amino acids with a high content of basic amino acids and therefore a positive charge. Nisin and lysozyme together have a synergistic effect; combined with other sterilization measures can be more effective in preventing food spoilage. The site of action of Nisin is mainly the cell membrane, and its mechanism of action is likely to be inserted into the cell membrane, the formation of a certain pore membrane channel in the cell membrane, leading to the release of cytoplasm, causing cell death. Nisin is mainly used for the preservation of foods with high protein content, such as meat and soy products. It can not be used in foods with low protein content. Otherwise, Nisin is used by microorganisms as a nitrogen source instead.
3.2 Polylysine (POly-lysine, abbreviated as PLL) is a newly developed broad-spectrum preservative in Japan. It is a metabolite produced by Streptomyces producing bacteria. The fermentation product obtained after separation and purification is the second Nisin (nisin) then a new type of natural preservatives. Its monomer, lysine, is an essential amino acid and therefore safe. Poly-lysine has high thermal stability, good water-solubility, good antibacterial activity in the range of neutral to slightly acidic, but is not effective in acidic and alkaline pH ranges.
Protamine is a protein with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity isolated from fish testis, which has good thermal stability, safety and non-toxicity, wide range of pH value (better bactericidal effect under the condition of neutralization or alkaline treatment) )Etc. However, the price of protamine is high, adding large amount, difficult to apply to ordinary food.
Lysozyme This enzyme hydrolyzes B-1, 4-glycosidic linkages in bacterial cell wall peptidoglycans, resulting in autolytic death of bacteria and even bactericidal effects of already denatured lysozyme due to its basicity, It can be used for food preservation. When lysozyme is used with EDTA, EDTA can complex out the calcium ions necessary for the lipopolysaccharide to maintain its structure, disrupting its structure and allowing lysozyme to act on its cell wall. Often used in conjunction with glycine and other noodles, aquatic food, salad and other food preservation.
Senbai preservative is a colorless, tasteless, edible fruit and vegetable preservative developed and developed by the United Kingdom. It can be widely used in the preservation of fruits and vegetables and has also achieved success in the preservation of flowers. Sunberry preservative is a compound of vegetable oil and sugar, the active ingredient is "sucrose ester." Its preservation mechanism is through the inhibition of fruit and vegetable respiration and water evaporation and let the fruit dormancy, slow down the rate of aging and aging. General 1 kg preservatives can handle about 28 tons of apples.
Chitosan (Chitosan) An arthropod shell extract, the main component is a derivative of chitosan, is a cationic polysaccharide, chitosan for food preservatives with safe, non-toxic, Easily washed off, can be biodegradable and there is no residual toxicity advantages. The mechanism of action of chitosan is to form a semipermeable membrane on the surface of fruit so as to regulate the physiological metabolism after fruit picking and inhibit the microorganism. Chitosan is produced by chitin deacetylation, the molecular hydroxyl and ammonia preserved candied fruits and juice production instead of sulfite as a pollution-free, does not affect the product base, forming a unique composite membrane, Through selective gas permeability, to achieve the purpose of delaying the aging of fruits and vegetables.
Vitamin C derivatives preservatives US scientists found that vitamin C derivatives of compounds can be kept in the experiment cut apple 48 hours without browning. The chemical composition of vitamin C derivatives, cinnamic acid, β-cyclodextrin and sodium phosphate, etc., can be used for peeled fruits, preservation before processing, canned, fruity preservatives to apply.
In addition to natural food preservatives, some synthetic non-toxic and efficient food preservatives also have a broad development prospects. In contrast, the synthesis of non-toxic non-toxic food preservatives, cheaper and easy to achieve.
Its molecular formula is CH3COONa.CH3COOH.nH2O It can be used for food, feed mold. The preservatives are less toxic and have the same effect as the commonly used mildew-proof calcium propionate, at a price of two-thirds.
Commonly known as sorbic acid, is currently recognized internationally safe, non-toxic, efficient and ideal new food preservatives, preservatives, fungicides, is a natural food additives. Widely used in all kinds of food. The synthesis method takes 3, 5-nonadiene-2-one, chlorine, caustic soda and sulfuric acid as the main raw materials, and obtains the best technological conditions. The yield of the obtained product reaches more than 95% and the quality meets the requirements of national standards.
The antimicrobial spectrum of the preservative has good inhibitory effect on bacteria, molds and yeasts, and its effect is better than that of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. Its preservative effect is not affected by the pH value; and its metabolites are the intermediate products of human body fat metabolism. The octanoic acid produced by the decomposition can be completely decomposed into carbon dioxide and water by the B-oxidation pathway. Glycerol can be decomposed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A safe, non-toxic preservative that is not restricted by usage and use in Japan's Food Sanitation Law. However, the product has the disadvantages of poor solubility, poor dispersibility (hardly soluble in water) and poor antibacterial effect on Gram-negative bacteria.
Sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate
The preservative has a wide range of applications, wide antibacterial spectrum, can inhibit bacteria and fungi and yeast, and has high bactericidal efficiency. The preservative effect is still good at high pH.
Its molecular formula is: CH3OOCCH = CHCOOCH3, the anti-mildew effect of the product is particularly good, suitable for a wide range of PH values in the PH3.0 ~ 8.0 have a good anti-mildew effect, much higher than the usual use of propionic acid Calcium, for example, under the same storage conditions, the bread with calcium propionate can be kept for 15 to 30 days without mold, while the bread with dimethyl fumarate can not grow with mold for 475 days. Dimethyl fumarate low toxicity, allergic to the skin.
On July 5, 2011, the state released the "National Standard for Food Safety - General Principles of Compounding Food Additives GB26687-2011", which was put into effect on September 5, 2011 with the issuance of production licenses. After the implementation of this standard, compound preservatives legally boarded the stage of history. Ordinary preservative due to the performance of a single, antibacterial enough not so comprehensive, that the effect is not very good, and complex preservative due to the addition of a variety of products, the effect is more comprehensive and professional, more suitable for use in the product, through different Formula, you can more effectively extend the shelf life of the product.